How to say it - /æ/ and /ʌ/ sounds
This is a short vowel sound. It sounds like the 'a' in cat /kæt/ and 'apple' /'æpl/.
The shape of /æ/ looks like an 'a' and an 'e' joining together:
'ae' = æ.
To make this sound, move your tongue down, open your mouth very wide (big enough to eat a whole apple), and use your voice.
This sound is usually spelt with an 'u'; eg. in 'up' /ʌp/ and 'cut' /kʌt/. It is also sometimes spelt as 'on'; eg. in 'wonderful'.
The shape of /ʌ/ looks like the head of an arrow pointing up.
These pictures compare the mouth for /ʌ/, /ʊ/, and /uː/.
/æ/, /ʌ/ and /ə/ sounds
To make the /ʌ/ sound, open your mouth (about half as open as /æ/), move your tongue back slightly more than /æ/, and use your voice.
These pictures compare the mouth for /æ/, /ʌ/, and /ə/, click on the red letters to go to their page.
/ʊ/, /uː/, /ʌ/ and /ə/ sounds
ʊ has no /ː/, but /uː/ does.
Video of Mouth
Follow the instructions as they appear in the video.