Spelling to Phonemics
It is easy to confuse the spelling of some sounds with the way those sounds are written; eg.
It is also easy to confuse the shapes of some of the phonemic symbols; eg.
Sometimes one letter has two phonemic symbols together, and sometimes a pair of letters has only one symbol; eg.
You can check for voicing by putting your hands on your ears and saying /d/. If you voice the sound you will hear /d/ , if you don’t voice it, you will hear /t/. Many of the consonants are in pairs, one unvoiced and one voiced. These pairs are /p/ and /b/, /t/ and /d/, /ʃ/ and /ʒ/,and /ʤ/and /ʧ/, /k/ and /g/, /f/ and /v/, ðə/ (eg. in unstressed ‘the’) and /θɪn/ (e.g. in ‘thin’), and /s/ and /z/. Click these symbols to hear the sounds.
If a sound is unvoiced, the air from your lungs does not make your vocal cords vibrate, and the sound is much quieter.
Some sounds change their voicing because of the different voicing of the sound next to them.
Place of Articulation
Here are some examples of sounds and their place of articulation:
Manner of Articulation
Parts of the Mouth
Here are the parts of the mouth.