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In-text Citation Exercise

 

Aim: This exercise aims to help you improve your in-text citation in APA-style citations. In-text citation is sometimes also called in-text referencing, and means telling the reader where you found the information. This is done by giving the author's family name, the year of publication and, if possible, the page number(s), although some sources, such as Internet pages, do not have page numbers. For students studying the ELC's English for Academic Purposes course, this exercise will help you to prepare for the long academic essay writing assignment. (Click here for the MS Word version of this exercise.)

Language Analysis:

Examples of in-text citation verbs and verb phrases:
Chan () states that the Internet is a useful research tool (p.16).
Cheung () suggests that the Internet is a useful research tool (p.16).
Fu () indicates that the Internet is a useful research tool (p.16).
Gao () points out that the Internet is a useful research tool (p.16).
Ho () presents evidence which shows that the Internet is a useful research tool (p.16).

For a controversial topic: Hui () argues that that the Internet is a time-saving research tool (p.16).

Do not use 'says', because it is bad style. Also, do not use 'claim', because this means that you think that the information may not be correct. The 2001 EAP book advises that, 'at this early stage of your academic writing career avoid using verbs implying criticism of a writer; e.g. "claim".'

Examples of the layout of the components of in-text citations:
According to Kwan (), the Internet is a useful research tool (p.16).
Kwok () states that the Internet is a useful research tool (p.16).
Lim () states that that the Internet is a useful research tool (p.16).
'The Internet is a useful research tool', states Mok ( ,  p.16).
'The Internet is a useful research tool' (Or, ,  p.16).

Common Errors:

  • You should write in-text citations not only for quotations, but also for paraphrases and summaries. This is because you are using the author's ideas, not just his or her words. Click here for more details about how to choose whether to use a quotation, summary or paraphrase.
  • Do not include the author's initial(s). Only put them in the bibliographic references at the end of the text.
  • Do not include the day and month of publication of a newspaper or magazine in the in-text citation.

Referencing Resources on the Internet

Exercise

Instructions:
1. Fill in your family name in this box:

2. Click here to create the exercise:

3. Correct the mistakes in the following exercise. There may be more than one possible answer. Make the smallest number of changes necessary to make a correct in-text citation. You can click the 'Check this answer only' button after each question, or you can click the 'Check All Answers' button below the exercise when you have finished it:

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Answers

1. Your answer was:

The correct answer is:

The mistake in the question was that there are 2 subjects (the author's name and 'he'), and 'According to...' and 'states' mean the same thing. There should only be one subject, and choose 'According to..' or 'states'. Back to Q.1.

2. Your answer was:

The correct answer is:

The mistake in the question was that there are 2 subjects (the author's name and 'he'), but there should only be one. Back to Q.2.

3. Your answer was:

The correct answer is:

The mistake in the question was that the year of publication is missing. It should follow the author's name. It is acceptable to put the page number at the end of the quotation, paraphrase or summary, as this shows the location of the end of the information that you are using from this author.Back to Q.3.

4. Your answer was:

The correct answer is:

The mistake in the question was that it is bad style to use 'says'. Back to Q.4.

5. Your answer was:

The correct answer is:

The mistake in the question was that the verb is wrong. Use 'states'. Back to Q.5.

6. Your answer was:

The correct answer is:

There are 2 mistakes in the question. Firstly, in-text citations should not include the author's initial, so delete ', D.'. Secondly, there should not be a comma before 'states'. Back to Q.6.

7. Your answer was:

The correct answer is:

The mistake in the question was that there should either be a verb before the author's name, or the author's name should be in the brackets with the year of publication and the page number. Back to Q.7.

8. Your answer was:

The correct answer is:

The mistake in the question was the use of the verb 'claims'. This means that you think that the information may not be correct. The 2001 EAP book advises that, 'at this early stage of your academic writing career avoid using verbs implying criticism of a writer; e.g. "claim"'. Back to Q.8.

 

9. Your answer was:

The correct answer is:

The mistake in the question was the use of the day and month. An in-text citation should only contain the year of publication. Back to Q.9.

Your score is


Tips

Tip for Question 1:
It's a problem with the subjects and words showing the writer's action. Back to Q.1.

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Tip for Question 2:
It's a problem with subjects. Back to Q.2.

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Tip for Question 3:
It's a problem with the date. Back to Q.3.

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Tip for Question 4:
It's a problem with the style of the verb. Back to Q.4.

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Tip for Question 5:
It's a problem with the verb. Back to Q.5.

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Tip for Question 6:
It's a problem with the name and the punctuation. Back to Q.6.

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Tip for Question 7:
It's a problem with the verb or brackets. Back to Q.7.

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Tip for Question 8
It's a problem with the style. Back to Q.8.

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Tip for Question 9
It's a problem with the date. Back to Q.9.

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Last updated on: Wednesday, January 11, 2017