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Contrast Clauses

Aim: This exercise is to help you to use contrast clauses correctly.

Introduction:
There are two types of contrast clause, those that give reasons and those that give surprising reasons. Click on the phrases to see example sentences of how they are used:

Contrast Phrases
Reasons Surprising Reasons

Grammar Tips:

Clause: A a clause is a subject noun or noun phrase followed by a verb or verb phrase; e.g. 'grammar' is a noun, 'some very easy grammar' is a noun phrase, 'is' is a verb, and 'has been' is a verb phrase.

Noun phrase: A a noun, or a noun with an article or determiner, and/or an adjective in front of it, and sometimes with a relative clause after it; e.g. apple (noun), some apples (determiner and noun), some red apples (determiner, adjective and noun), some red apples which I am going to eat (determiner, adjective, noun and relative clause).


After clauses ending in 'the fact that', use a clause, that is part of a sentence with a subject noun and a verb
 Examples:
  'I like grammar due to the fact that it is logical.' ('it' is the subject noun, and 'is' is the verb).
  'I like grammar in spite of the fact that it is time-consuming to learn.'

After 'In spite of', use a noun phrase or an '_ing' form.
  Example:
   'In spite of Hong Kong being a hot place, I like the weather here.'

It is bad style to start a sentence with 'Because'.

Exercise
Choose the correct word from the options.drop-down list:

  1. it is great fun, many people spend hours each day on the Internet.

     

    Answers:
    Owing to the fact that it is great fun, many people spend hours each day on the Internet.
    Due to the fact that it is great fun, many people spend hours each day on the Internet.

    Explanation:
    'it is great fun' is a clause, so the contrast clause ends in 'the fact that'. As the meaning is not surprising, use a phrase from the 'Reasons' column of the table above. Although the meaning would be correct if 'Because' is the answer, the style is not good.

  2. Ten years ago very few people used the Internet its use was restricted to the military.

     

    Answers:
    Ten years ago very few people used the Internet because its use was restricted to the military.
    Ten years ago very few people used the Internet due to the fact that its use was restricted to the military.
    Ten years ago very few people used the Internet owing to the fact that its use was restricted to the military.

    Explanation:
    The second part of the sentence is a clause, with 'its use' being the subject noun and 'was restricted to' the verb phrase.
    This is not surprising, so use a phrase from the 'Reasons' column.

  3. it being very popular, many older people do not know how to use the Internet.

     

    Answer:
    In spite of it being very popular, many older people do not know how to use the Internet.

    Explanation:
    The following verb is an '_ing' form, and 'it' is a noun.

  4. its fast download speed, Broadband has many advantages.

     

    Answer:
    Due to its fast download speed, Broadband has many advantages.
    Owing to its fast download speed, Broadband has many advantages.

    Explanation:
    This is not surprising, so use a phrase from the 'Reasons' column.
    'its fast download speed' is a noun phrase (there is no verb in it).
     

  5. it discourages their children from socializing and sleeping, some parents are quite wary of having a computer at home.

     

    Answer:
    Due to the fact that it discourages their children from socializing and sleeping, some parents are quite wary of having a computer at home.

    Explanation:
    This is not surprising, so use a phrase from the 'Reasons' column.
    'it discourages their children from socializing and sleeping' is a clause ('it' is the subject noun, and 'discourages' is the verb).
     

  6. Many people prefer a PDA to a desk computer the screen size is very small.

     

    Answer:
    Many people prefer a PDA to a desk computer in spite of the fact that the screen size is very small.

    Explanation:
    This is surprising, so use a phrase from the 'Surprising Reasons' column.
    'the screen size is very small' is a clause ('the screen size' is the subject noun phrase, and 'is' is the verb).
     

  7. its enormous convenience, studying on the Internet may not always be as effective as face to face study.

     

    Answer:
    In spite of its enormous convenience, studying on the Internet may not always be as effective as face to face study.

    Explanation:
    This is surprising, so use a phrase from the 'Surprising Reasons' column.
    'its enormous convenience' is a noun phrase (there is no verb before the comma).
     

  8. there are no restrictions on who can set up a web page, there is a lot of misinformation on the Web.

     

    Answer:
    Owing to the fact that there are no restrictions on who can set up a web page, there is a lot of misinformation on the Web.
    Due to the fact that there are no restrictions on who can set up a web page, there is a lot of misinformation on the Web.

    Explanation:
    This is not surprising, so use a phrase from the 'Reasons' column.
    'there are no restrictions on who can set up a web page' is a clause ('there' is the subject noun, 'are' is the verb).
     

  9. The Internet is actually quite restricted in its number and type of users it is expensive to buy a computer.

     

    Answer:
    The Internet is actually quite restricted in its number and type of users due to the fact that it is expensive to buy a computer.
    The Internet is actually quite restricted in its number and type of users owing to the fact that it is expensive to buy a computer.

    Explanation:
    This is not surprising, so use a phrase from the 'Reasons' column.
    'it is expensive to buy a computer.' is a clause ('it' is the subject noun and 'is' is the verb).
     

  10. Cybercafes should be kept open the fire hazards they sometimes create.

     

    Answer:
    Cybercafes should be kept open in spite of the fire hazards they sometimes create.

    Explanation:
    This is not surprising, so use a phrase from the 'Reasons' column.
    'the fire hazards they sometimes create.' is a noun phrase (there is no verb).
     

  11.  

 

Last updated on: Friday, March 23, 2012