Sentence patterns: Contrast clauses
This exercise is to help you to use contrast clauses
You use contrast clauses when you want to make two statements, one of which
contrasts with the other or makes
it appear unexpected or surprising. Some contrast clauses – called
concessive clauses – are introduced by
conjunctions such as although
, even though
Although Mrs. Sims had lived in Hong Kong all her life, she knew very little
While the number of families with access to the Internet and cable television
has risen sharply in the past
decade, what tends to be overlooked is that a significant proportion of
households are unable to afford the
fees for these services.
Don’t use but in sentences beginning with although, even though
or while. Here is a common mistake:
Although Kelvin worked hard, but he failed the examination.
You can leave out the subject and the verb be
in a contrast clause when the
subject of the contrast clause and the
main clause are the same (e.g. he was
in the following sentence).
Though / Although [he was] hard working, Kelvin failed the examination.
You will sometimes see the word albeit used in formal English. Albeit
can come before an adjective, adverb, or adverbial phrase. In the sentence
below, ‘albeit rather reluctantly’
means ‘even though she did so rather reluctantly’.
Jayne participated in the charity walk, albeit rather reluctantly.
You can also use despite or in spite of to make a contrast. These are followed
by either a noun phrase or an ‘ing’
Despite working hard, Kelvin failed the examination.
In spite of his hard work, Kelvin failed the examination.
This sentence is incorrect:
Despite he worked hard,
Kelvin failed the examination.
If you want to follow despite or in spite of with a clause you must add
the fact that.
Despite the fact that he worked hard, Kelvin failed the examination.
The word yet has many meanings. One of these is a similar meaning to
but, although it expresses more surprise about something unexpected. It
can come between adjectives, adverbs or clauses. For example:
He was poor yet generous.
He worked slowly yet effectively.
He loved animals, yet he hated snakes.
Choose the correct word(s) from the drop-down lists:
Last updated on: Monday, March 26, 2012